Barack Obama on Foreign Policy

Democratic nomine for President; Junior Senator (IL)

FactCheck: Campaign prevented committee meetings, not rules

Obama said that he did not convene any policy hearings as chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee’s Subcommittee on European Affairs because “the issues of Afghanistan, the issues of Iraq, critical issues like that don’t go through my subcommittee because they’re done as a committee as a whole.”

FACT CHECK: An Obama adviser acknowledged in March that Obama’s presidential candidacy prevented him from calling hearings, saying to ABC News: “The record is what it is. He didn’t become chairman of that subcommittee until January of 2007. The fact is that he made his announcement for president of the US in February of 2007. So, he had other things on his mind.”

Source: FactCheck.org on 2008 first presidential debate-Boston Globe Sep 26, 2008

In Cold War, we won hearts & minds; now do same to world

This is the moment when we must give hope to those left behind in a globalized world. We must remember that the Cold War born in this city was not a battle for land or treasure. Sixty years ago, the planes that flew over Berlin did not drop bombs; instea they delivered food, and coal, and candy to grateful children. And in that show of solidarity, those pilots won more than a military victory. They won hearts and minds; love and loyalty and trust--not just from the people of Berlin, but from all those who heard the story of what they did here.

Now the world will watch and remember. Will we lift the child in Bangladesh from poverty, shelter the refugee in Chad, and banish the scourge of AIDS in our time? Will we acknowledge that there is no more powerful example than the one each of our nations projects to the world? Will we reject torture and stand for the rule of law?

People of Berlin--people of the world--this is our moment. This is our time.

Source: Speech in Berlin, in Change We Can Believe In, p.269-70 Jul 24, 2008

Dangers of intertwined world can’t be contained in borders

The 21st century has revealed a world more intertwined than at any time in human history. But that very closeness has given rise to new dangers--dangers that cannot be contained within the borders of a country or by the distance of an ocean.

The terrorists of September 11th plotted in Hamburg and trained in Kandahar and Karachi before killing thousands from all over the globe on American soil.

As we speak, cars in Boston and factories in Beijing are melting the ice caps in the Arctic, shrinking coastlines in the Atlantic, and bringing drought to farms from Kansas to Kenya.

In this new world, such dangerous currents have swept along faster than our efforts to contain them. That is why we cannot afford to be divided. No one nation, no matter how large or powerful, can defeat such challenges alone. And if we’re honest with each other, we know that sometimes, on both sides of the Atlantic, we have drifted apart, and forgotten our shared destiny.

Source: Speech in Berlin, in Change We Can Believe In, p.264-5 Jul 24, 2008

Important to undo the damage of the last seven years

The Bush administration has done so much damage to American foreign relations that the president take a more active role in diplomacy than might have been true 20 or 30 years ago. If we think that meeting with the president is a privilege that has to be earned, that reinforces the sense that we stand above the rest of the world at this point in time. It’s important for us in undoing the damage that has been done over the last seven years, for the president to be willing to take that extra step.
Source: 2008 Democratic debate at University of Texas in Austin Feb 21, 2008

Never negotiate out of fear, and never fear to negotiate

As commander-in-chief, all of us would have a responsibility to keep the American people safe. That’s our first responsibility. I would not hesitate to strike against anybody who would do Americans or American interests’ harm. What I do believe is that we have to describe a new foreign policy that says, for example, I will meet not just with our friends, but with our enemies, because I remember what Kennedy said, that we should never negotiate out of fear, but we should never fear to negotiate. Having that kind of posture is the way we effectively debate the Republicans on this issue. Because if we just play into the same fear-mongering that they have been engaged in since 9/11, then we are playing on their battlefield, but, more importantly, we are not doing what’s right in order to rebuild our alliances, repair our relationships around the world, and actually make us more safe in the long term.
Source: 2008 Congressional Black Caucus Democratic debate Jan 21, 2008

President must abide by international human rights treaties

Q: Under what circumstances, if any, is the president, when operating overseas as commander-in-chief, free to disregard international human rights treaties that the US Senate has ratified?

A: It is illegal and unwise for the President to disregard international human rights treaties that have been ratified by the United States Senate, including and especially the Geneva Conventions. The Commander-in-Chief power does not allow the President to defy those treaties.

Source: Boston Globe questionnaire on Executive Power Dec 20, 2007

Obama Doctrine: ideology has overridden facts and reality

Q: How will future historians describe your foreign policy doctrine?

A: The Obama Doctrine is not going to be as doctrinaire as the Bush Doctrine because the world is complicated. Bush’s ideology has overridden facts and reality. That means that if there are children in the Middle East who cannot read, that is a potential long-term danger to us. If China is polluting, then eventually that is going to reach our shores. We have to work with them cooperatively to solve their problems as well as ours.

Source: 2007 Des Moines Register Democratic debate Dec 13, 2007

No Obama Doctrine; just democracy, security, liberty

Obama’s failure to condemn all military action has led to criticism from some on the left. One critic noted: “He accepts the Bush Doctrine. He accepts the doctrine of preemptive strikes.”

The key part of the Bush Doctrine is the focus on unilateral action and the use of force to spread democracy around the world. And the worst part of the Bush administration is not the Bush Doctrine but Bush’s implementation of it.

As Obama famously declared in 2002, he did not oppose all wars, but he did oppose a “dumb war.” Isolationism must not be the reaction to a dumb president and a dumb war.

There is no Obama Doctrine because Obama is not a doctrinaire kind of leader who operates according to fixed policies. Instead, Obama believes in a set of principle (democracy, security, liberty) for the world and tries to come up with practical measures for incrementally increasing US security and global freedom. He rejects isolationism and he tries to steer clear of unilateralism.

Source: The Improbable Quest, by John K. Wilson, p.117-118 Oct 30, 2007

$50B annually to strengthen weak states at risk of collapse

Barack Obama believes that strengthening weak states at risk of collapse, economic meltdown or public health crises strengthens America’s security. Obama will double U.S. spending on foreign aid to $50 billion a year by 2012.

He will help developing countries invest in sustainable democracies and demand more accountability in return. Obama will establish a $2 billion Global Education Fund to eliminate the global education deficit. He will reduce the debt of developing nations and better coordinate trade and development policies.

Obama also will reestablish U.S. moral leadership by respecting civil liberties; ending torture; restoring habeas corpus; making the U.S. electoral processes fair and transparent and fighting corruption at home.

Source: Campaign website, BarackObama.com, “Resource Flyers” Aug 26, 2007

No “strategic ambiguity” on foreign policy issues

Q: [to Clinton]: You said Sen. Obama’s views on meeting with foreign dictators are “naive and irresponsible.”

CLINTON: A president should not telegraph to our adversaries that you’re willing to meet with them without preconditions.

OBAMA: Strong countries and strong presidents meet and talk with our adversaries. We shouldn’t be afraid to do so. We’ve tried the other way. It didn’t work.

Q: [to Dodd]: You’ve called Sen. Obama’s views “confusing & confused, dangerous & irresponsible.”

DODD: I disagreed with Obama on a hypothetical solution that raised serious issues within Pakistan. I thought it was irresponsible to engage in that kind of a suggestion. That’s dangerous.

OBAMA: We should describe for the American people in presidential debates & in the presidency, what our foreign policy is and what we’re going to do. We shouldn’t have strategic ambiguity with the American people when it comes to describing how we’re going to deal with our most serious national security issues.

Source: 2007 Democratic primary debate on “This Week” Aug 19, 2007

My critics engineered our biggest foreign policy disaster

Q: [to Dodd]: You said that Sen. Obama’s “assertions about foreign and military affairs have been confusing and confused.” You added, “He should not be making unwise categorical statements about military options.” What in your opinion has been confusing?

DODD: Words mean things. When you raise issues about Pakistan, understand that while General Musharraf is no Thomas Jefferson, but he may be the only thing that stands between us and having an Islamic fundamentalist state in that country.

OBAMA: I find it amusing that those who helped to authorize & engineer the biggest foreign policy disaster in our generation are now criticizing me for making sure that we are on the right battlefield and not the wrong battlefield in the war against terrorism. Sen. Dodd obviously didn’t read my speech. Because what I said was that we have to refocus, get out of Iraq, make certain that we are helping Pakistan deal with the problem of al Qaeda in the hills between Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Source: 2007 AFL-CIO Democratic primary forum Aug 8, 2007

Meet with enemy leaders; it’s a disgrace that we have not

Q: Would you be willing to meet separately, without precondition, during the first year of your administration, with the leaders of Iran, Syria, Venezuela, Cuba and North Korea?

OBAMA: I would. And the reason is this: the notion that somehow not talking to countries is punishment to them--which has been the guiding diplomatic principle of this administration--is ridiculous. Ronald Reagan constantly spoke to Soviet Union at a time when he called them an evil empire. He understood that we may not trust them and they may pose an extraordinary danger to this country, but we had the obligation to find areas where we can potentially move forward. And I think that it is a disgrace that we have not spoken to them.

CLINTON: I will not promise to meet with the leaders of these countries during my first year. I don’t want to be used for propaganda purposes. I don’t want to make a situation even worse. But I certainly agree that we need to get back to diplomacy.

Source: 2007 YouTube Democratic Primary debate, Charleston SC Jul 23, 2007

We cannot afford isolationism

We cannot afford isolationism--not only because our work with respect to stabilizing Iraq is not complete but because our missteps in Iraq have distracted us from the larger threat of terrorism, a threat that we can only meet by working in cooperation with other countries.

We risk a further increase in isolationist sentiment unless both the administration and Congress can restore the American people’s confidence that our foreign policy is driven by facts and reason, rather than hopes and ideology.

Source: In His Own Words, edited by Lisa Rogak, p. 74-75 Mar 27, 2007

Never has US had so much power & so little influence to lead

American leadership has been a mighty force for human progress. The steady march of democracy and free enterprise across the globe speaks to the steadfastness of our leadership and the power of our ideals. Today we face new and frightful challenges, especially the threat of terror. Never has it been more important for American to lead wisely, to shrewdly project power and wield influence on behalf of liberty and security. Unfortunately, I fear our once great influence is waning, a victim of misguided policies and impetuous actions. Never has the US possessed so much power, and never has the US had so little influence to lead.

We still have the chance to correct recent missteps that have put our principles and legacy in question. Indeed, it is imperative to our nation’s standing and security to do so. It will take a change of attitude and direction in our national leadership to restore the values and judgment that made and kept our nation the world’s beacon of hope and freedom.

Source: Speech to Chicago Council on Foreign Relations Jul 12, 2004

US policy should promote democracy and human rights

In every region of the globe, our foreign policy should promote traditional American ideals: democracy and human rights; free and fair trade and cultural exchanges; and development of institutions that ensure broad middle classes within market economies.

It is our commonality of interests in the world that can ultimately restore our influence and win back the hearts and minds necessary to defeat terrorism and project American values around the globe. Human aspirations are universal-for dignity, for freedom, for the opportunity to improve the lives of our families.

Let us recognize what unites us across borders and build on the strength of this blessed country. Let us embrace our history and our legacy. Let us not only define our values in words and carry them out in deeds.

Source: Speech to Chicago Council on Foreign Relations Jul 12, 2004

Barack Obama on Africa

Majored in international affairs based on living abroad

Q: Why did you major in international affairs?

A: Well, obviously, having lived overseas and having lived in Hawaii, having a mother who was a specialist in international development, who was one of the early practitioners of microfinancing, and would go to villages in South Asia and Africa and Southeast Asia, helping women buy a loom or a sewing machine or a milk cow, to be able to enter into the economy--it was natural for me, to be interested in international affairs.

The Vietnam War had drawn to a close when I was fairly young. And so, that wasn’t formative for me in the way it was, I think, for an earlier generation.

The Cold War, though, still loomed large. And I thought that both my interest in what was then called the Third World and development there, as well as my interest in issues like nuclear proliferation and policy, that I thought that I might end up going into some sort of international work at some point in my life.

Source: CNN Late Edition: 2008 presidential series on Zakaria’s GPS Jul 13, 2008

Moral obligation to intervene in Darfur to avoid spillover

Q: What about Darfur? You’ve called for a UN no-fly zone, but the Chinese and the Russians will probably not go along with it, so it’d be a US or NATO no-fly zone.

A: In a situation like Darfur, I think that the world has a self-interest in ensuring that genocide is not taking place on our watch. Not only because of the moral and ethical implications, but also because chaos in Sudan ends up spilling over into Chad. It ends up spilling over into other parts of Africa, can end up being repositories of terrorist activity. Those are all things that we’ve got to pay attention to. And if we have enough nations that are willing--particularly African nations, and not just Western nations--that are willing to intercede in an effective, coherent way, then I think that we need to act.

Source: CNN Late Edition: 2008 presidential series on Zakaria’s GPS Jul 13, 2008

Wrote 2006 law stabilizing Congo with $52M

Obama wrote the law signed in 2006 that provided $52 million in US assistance to help stabilize the Congo, and he worked to approve $20 million for the African Union peacekeeping mission. Obama also worked with Sam Brownback (R-Kans.), writing an op-ed in the Washington Post criticizing the Bush administration’s failure to stop genocide in Darfur.
Source: The Improbable Quest, by John K. Wilson, p.160 Oct 30, 2007

Increased aid to Republic of Congo

[Obama had planned his trip to Africa since 2005]. Conversations I had with Obama along the 2004 campaign trail made it abundantly clear that the atrocities of Darfur’s civil war were a deep source of concern for him. Also, as a senator, Obama was successful in passing an amendment to a 2006 Iraqi spending bill that increased aid to the Republic of Congo.

The 15-day trip to Africa was organized to include visits to 5 countries, but the bulk of the journey was to be spent in South Africa and then Kenya. After Kenya, Obama had planned brief visits to the Congo, Djibouti and the Darfur region of Sudan, site of the bloody conflict that was killing thousands of Sudanese a month and displacing millions more.

But Kenya, the homeland of his father, was the physical and emotional centerpiece of the trip. Kenyans had adopted him as one of their own, and had made him a living folk hero in the East African nation.

Source: From Promise to Power, by David Mendell, p.322-323 Aug 14, 2007

Visited largest slum in Africa, to publicize its plight

[Obama’s African trip] would take us to one of the bleakest places on the planet. Kibera is recognized as the largest single slum in all of Africa, and thus in all the world. Over 700,000 impoverished souls are packed into a tract of urban land that is just 2.5 square kilometers. Situated in the southwest quadrant of Nairobi, Kibera was first settled extensively in the 1920s by an ethnic group called Nubians.

Many residents lacked basic services, such as clean running water and plumbing. Sewage and garbage were dumped into the open; dwellings were made of canvas and tin with corrugated roofing; and some children appeared less than fully nourished.

The inhabitants, however, were positively gleeful at Obama’s visit. Obama grabbed a bullhorn. “Everybody in Kibera needs the same opportunities to go to school, to start businesses, to have enough to eat, to have decent clothes,” he told the residents, who madly cheered his words. “I wants to make sure everybody in America knows Kibera.

Source: From Promise to Power, by David Mendell, p.367-369 Aug 14, 2007

No-fly zone in Darfur; but pay attention more in Africa

Q: Darfur is the second time that our nation has had a chance to do something about genocide in Africa. The first came in Rwanda in 1994, when we did nothing.

RICHARDSON: What I would like to do is, one, a no-fly zone. Get economic sanctions backed by the Europeans; we should use the levers on China. We need to find ways to stop the massive rapes.

OBAMA: The no-fly zone is important. Having the protective force is critical. But we have to look at Africa not just after a crisis happens; what are we doing with respect to trade opportunities with Africa? What are we doing in terms of investment in Africa? What are we doing to pay attention to Africa consistently with respect to our foreign policy? That has been what’s missing in the White House. Our long-term security is going to depend on whether we’re giving children in Sudan and Zimbabwe and in Kenya the same opportunities so that they have a stake in order as opposed to violence and chaos.

Source: 2007 Democratic Primary Debate at Howard University Jun 28, 2007

U.S. funds for humanitarian aid to Darfur

The United States should raise the needed funds to ensure that the civilians in Sudan receive life saving humanitarian assistance. We should lead in contributing the lion’s share of these funds so that we can convince others to give their fair share as well--the United States should support the immediate deployment of an effective international force to disarm militias, protect civilians, and facilitate delivery of humanitarian assistance in Darfur.
Source: In His Own Words, edited by Lisa Rogak, p. 26 Mar 27, 2007

Protested South African apartheid while at college

[While at college in the ‘80s] Obama became involved in the movement to demand that colleges divest themselves of financial interests that helped support apartheid in South Africa.

At a rally, Obama rose to speak in public for the first time: “There is a struggle going on. It is happening an ocean away. But it is a struggle that touches each and every one of us... a struggle that demands we choose sides. Not between black & white. Not between rich & poor. No, it is a choice between dignity & servitude. Between fairness & injustice. Between commitment & indifference. A choice between right & wrong.“

By prearrangement, he was dragged off by students dressed as soldiers to dramatize the lack of rights in South Africa. He did not want to give up the microphone. The audience was ”clapping and cheering, and I knew that I had them, that the connection had been made. I really wanted to stay up there, to hear my voice bouncing off the crowd and returning back to me in applause. I had so much left to say.

Source: Hopes and Dreams, by Steve Dougherty, p. 58-59 Feb 15, 2007

Focus on corruption to improve African development

During Obama’s trip to Kenya, at an Aug. 28 2006 speech in Nairobi, he stung some Kenyan officials enough that they sent Obama a scathing official complaint, because Obama pointedly encouraged Kenyan officials to do more to fight corruption:
Like many nations across this continent, where Kenya is failing is in its ability to create a government that is transparent and accountable One that serves its people and is free from corruption. The reason I speak of the freedom you fought so hard to win is because today that freedom is in jeopardy. It is being threatened by corruption.

Corruption is not a new problem. It’s not just a Kenyan problem, or an African problem. It’s a human problem, and it has existed in some form in almost every society. My own city of Chicago has been the home of some of the most corrupt local politics in American history. But while corruption is a problem we all share, here in Kenya it is a crisis that’s robbing an honest people of opportunities.
Source: Should Barack Obama Be President?, by Fred Zimmerman, p.29 Oct 17, 2006

Visited Africa in 2006; encouraged HIV testing & research

Pro’s and Con’s: Obama visited African in 2006 and went to South Africa, Chad, and Kenya.

Pro: He is a mensch. Here on a few things he did on his summer vacation:

Con: Who cares? It is Africa. If we are going to go with a President from a non-European background, let’s go with one whose relatives are from a country whose friendship will help us, like China or India.

Pro: Kenyans love him.

Con: Who cares? It’s Kenya.

Source: Should Barack Obama be President, by F. Zimmerman, p. 27-28 Oct 17, 2006

Barack Obama on Americas

Meet with Cuban leaders only with agenda of US interests

Q: [to Clinton]: Would you meet with Raul Castro or not?

CLINTON: I would not meet with him until there was evidence that change was happening.

Q: [to Obama]: Presumably you would be willing to meet?

A: That’s correct. Now, keep in mind that the starting point for our policy in Cuba should be the liberty of the Cuban people. And I think we recognize that that liberty has not existed throughout the Castro regime. And we now have an opportunity to potentially change the relationship between the US & Cuba after over half a century. I would meet without preconditions, although Sen. Clinton is right that there has to be preparation. It is very important for us to make sure that there was an agenda [including] human rights, releasing of political prisoners, opening up the press. And that preparation might take some time. But I do think that it’s important for the US not just to talk to its friends, but also to talk to its enemies. In fact, that’s where diplomacy makes the biggest difference.

Source: 2008 Democratic debate at University of Texas in Austin Feb 21, 2008

Cuba: Loosen restrictions now; normalization later

Q: Do you support normalizing relations with Cuba now?

A: As a show of good faith that we’re interested in pursuing a new relationship, I’ve called for a loosening of the restrictions on remittances from family members to Cuba, as well as travel restrictions for family members who want to visit their family members in Cuba. And I think that initiating that change in policy as a start could be useful, but I would not normalize relations until we started seeing some progress.

Q: But that’s different from your position back in 2003, when you called US policy toward Cuba a miserable failure.

A: I support the eventual normalization. And it’s absolutely true that I think our policy has been a failure. During my entire lifetime, Cuba has been isolated, but has not made progress when it comes to the issues of political rights and personal freedoms. So I think that we have to shift policy. I think our goal has to be ultimately normalization. But that’s going to happen in steps.

Source: 2008 Democratic debate at University of Texas in Austin Feb 21, 2008

Willing to meet with Fidel Castro, Kim Jung Il & Hugo Chavez

Q: In July, you were asked if you were willing to meet separately without pre-condition during your first year with Fidel Castro, Kim Jung Il, Hugo Chavez. You said yes. You stand by that?

A: I do. Now, I did not say that I would be meeting with all of them. I said I’d be willing to. Obviously, there is a difference between pre-conditions and preparation. Pre-conditions, which was what the question was in that debate, means that we won’t meet with people unless they’ve already agreed to the very things that we expect to be meeting with them about. And obviously, when we say to Iran, “We won’t meet with you until you’ve agreed to all the terms that we’ve laid out,” from their perspective that’s not a negotiation, that’s not a meeting.

Q: You’re not afraid of being used in a propaganda way?

A: You know, strong countries and strong presidents speak with their adversaries. I always think back to JFK’s saying that we should never negotiate out of fear, but we shouldn’t fear to negotiate.

Source: Meet the Press: 2007 “Meet the Candidates” series Nov 11, 2007

Invest in our relationship with Mexico

Making sure that we are investing in our relationship with Mexico so that people in Mexico feel as if they can raise a family and have a good life on the other side of the border is going to be critical; making certain that we have strong border security is important; a pathway to citizenship is something that I’ve been committed to since I came to the US Senate.
Source: 2007 Democratic primary debate on Univision in Spanish Sep 9, 2007

Barack Obama on Asia

We must be tough with Pakistan & stop coddling Musharraf

McCAIN: I’m not prepared to threaten Pakistan, as Sen. Obama wants to do, as he has said that he would announce military strikes into Pakistan.

OBAMA: If the US has al Qaeda, bin Laden, top-level lieutenants in our sights, and Pakistan is unable or unwilling to act, then we should take them out. I think that’s the right strategy; I think that’s the right policy. This is not an easy situation. You’ve got cross-border attacks against US troops. We’ve got a choice. We could allow our troops to be on the defensive and absorb those blows again and again, if Pakistan is unwilling to cooperate, or we start making some decisions. And the problem with the strategy that’s been pursued was that, for 10 years, we coddled Musharraf, we alienated the Pakistani population, because we were anti-democratic. We had a 20th-century mindset that basically said, “Well, you know, he may be a dictator, but he’s our dictator.” As a consequence, we lost legitimacy in Pakistan. That’s going to change when I’m president.

Source: 2008 first presidential debate, Obama vs. McCain Sep 26, 2008

Must be tough on Iran, but talk to them too

Q: How big a threat is Iran to the US?

A: Ironically, the single thing that has strengthened Iran over the last several years has been the war in Iraq. What we’ve seen over the last several years is Iran’s influence grow. They have funded Hezbollah, they have funded Hamas, they have gone from zero centrifuges to 4,000 centrifuges to develop a nuclear weapon.

So our policy over the last eight years has not worked. We cannot tolerate a nuclear Iran. Not only would it threaten Israel, a country that is our stalwart ally, but it would also set off an arms race in the Middle East.

We are going to have to engage in tough direct diplomacy with Iran and this is a major difference I have with Senator McCain, this notion by not talking to people we are punishing them has not worked. It has not worked in Iran, it has not worked in North Korea. In each instance, our efforts of isolation have actually accelerated their efforts to get nuclear weapons.

Source: 2008 first presidential debate, Obama vs. McCain Sep 26, 2008

Learned privilege of being American by living in Indonesia

Q: What is your first memory of a foreign policy event that shaped your life?

A: Well, it wasn’t so much an event--my first memory was my mother coming to me and saying, “I’ve remarried this man from Indonesia, and we’re moving to Jakarta on the other side of the world.” And that’s my first memory of understanding how big the world was. This was only a year after an enormous coup. But it was for me, as a young boy, a magical place. And I think that probably is when it first enters into my consciousnes that this is a big world. There are a lot of countries, a lot of cultures. It’s a complicated place.

Q: But you were an American in Indonesia. How did that make you feel?

A: Well, it made me realize what an enormous privilege it is to be an American. [Not just] the gap in the wealth. It was also becoming aware that the generals in Indonesia were living in lavish mansions, and the sense that government wasn’t always working for the people, but was working for insiders.

Source: CNN Late Edition: 2008 presidential series on Zakaria’s GPS Jul 13, 2008

China is a competitor but not an enemy

Q: Given China’s size, its muscular manufacturing capabilities, its military buildup, at this point--and also including its large trade deficit--at this point, who has more leverage, China or the U.S.?

A: Number one is we’ve got to get our own fiscal house in order. Number two, when I was visiting Africa, I was told by a group of businessmen that the presence of China is only exceeded by the absence of America in the entire African continent. Number three, we have to be tougher negotiators with China. They are not enemies, but they are competitors of ours. Right now the United States is still the dominant superpower in the world. But the next president can’t be thinking about today; he or she also has to be thinking about 10 years from now, 20 years from now, 50 years from now.

Source: 2007 Des Moines Register Democratic debate Dec 13, 2007

U.S. needs to ameliorate trade relations with China

The U.S. should be firm on issues that divide us like Taiwan while flexible on issues that could unite us. We should insist on labor standards and human rights, the opening of Chinese markets fully to American goods, and the fulfillment of legal contracts with American businesses but without triggering a trade war as prolonged instability in the Chinese economy could have global economic consequences.
Source: In His Own Words, edited by Lisa Rogak, p. 22 Mar 27, 2007

Barack Obama on Europe

We’ve been reactive for 8 years; be proactive with Russia

Part of the job of the next commander-in-chief, in keeping all of you safe, is making sure that we can see some of the 21st Century challenges and anticipate them before they happen.

We haven’t been doing enough of that. We tend to be reactive. That’s what we’ve been doing over the last eight years. That’s part of what happened in Afghanistan, where we rushed into Iraq and Sen. McCain and President Bush suggested that it wasn’t that important to catch bin Laden right now and that we could muddle through, and that has cost us dearly.

We’ve got to be much more strategic if we’re going to be able to deal with all of the challenges that we face out there.

Regarding Russia: Energy is going to be key in dealing with Russia. If we can reduce our energy consumption, that reduces the amount of petro dollars that they have to make mischief around the world. That will strengthen us and weaken them when it comes to issues like Georgia.

Source: 2008 second presidential debate against John McCain Oct 7, 2008

Recent Russian actions in Georgia are unacceptable

Q: How do you see the US relationship with Russia?

A: Our entire Russian approach has to be evaluated, because an aggressive Russia is a threat to the stability of the region. Their actions in Georgia were unacceptable. It is critical for the next president to follow through on our six-point cease-fire. It is important that we explain to the Russians that you cannot be a 21st-century superpower and act like a 20th-century dictatorship.

We also have to affirm the fledgling democracies in that region--the Estonians, the Lithuanians, the Poles, the Czechs. They are members of NATO. To countries like Georgia & Ukraine, we have to say they are free to join NATO if they meet the requirements.

We also can’t return to a Cold War posture with respect to Russia. It’s important that we recognize there are going to be some areas of common interest. One is nuclear proliferation. This is an area where I’ve led in the Senate, working to deal with the proliferation of loose nuclear weapons.

Source: 2008 first presidential debate, Obama vs. McCain Sep 26, 2008

In Berlin: proud citizen of US; fellow citizen of the world

I come to Berlin as so many of my countrymen have come before. Tonight, I speak to you not as a candidate for President, but as a proud citizen of the United States, and a fellow citizen of the world.

I know that I don’t look like the Americans who’ve previously spoken in this great city. This city, of all cities, knows the dream of freedom. And you know that the only reason we stand here tonight is because men and women from both of our nations came together to work, and struggle, and sacrifice for that better life.

People of the world--look at Berlin!

Look at Berlin, where Germans and Americans learned to work together and trust each other less than three years after facing each other on the field of battle.

People of the world--look at Berlin, where a wall came down, a continent came together, and history proved that there is no challenge too great for a world that stands as one.

Source: Speech in Berlin, in Change We Can Believe In, p.262-3 Jul 24, 2008

Cooperation among nations is not a choice; it’s the only way

In Europe, the view that America is part of what has gone wrong in our world, rather than a force to help make it right, has become all too common. In America, there are voices that deride and deny the importance of Europe’s role in our security and our future. Both views miss the truth--that Europeans today are bearing new burdens; and that America still sacrifices greatly for freedom around the globe.

Yes, there have been differences between America and Europe. No doubt, there will be differences in the future. But the burdens of global citizenship continue to bind us together. A change of leadership in Washington will not lift this burden. In this new century, Americans and Europeans alike will be required to do more--not less. Partnership and cooperation among nations is not a choice; it is the one way, the only way, to protect our common security and advance our common humanity.

That is why the greatest danger of all is to allow new walls to divide us from one another.

Source: Speech in Berlin, in Change We Can Believe In, p.265 Jul 24, 2008

Chairs European subcommittee; could hold Afghanistan hearing

Q: If you believe Afghanistan is the central front in the war on terror, why didn’t you hold a single hearing as chairman of the subcommittee that oversees the fighting force there?

A: Actually, the subcommittee that I chair is the European subcommittee. And any issues related to Afghanistan were always dealt with in the full committee, precisely because it’s so important. That’s not a matter that you would deal with in a subcommittee setting.

Source: 2008 CBS News presidential interview with Katie Couric Jul 22, 2008

Engage Russia regarding nuclear proliferation

Q: John McCain has talked about a new G-8 which would expel Russia.

A: It would be a mistake. Look, if we’re going to do something about nuclear proliferation--just to take one issue--we’ve got to have Russia involved. The amount of loose nuclear material that’s floating around in the former Soviet Union, the amount of technical know-how that is in countries that used to be behind the Iron Curtain--without Russia’s cooperation, our efforts on that front will be greatly weakened.

Source: CNN Late Edition: 2008 presidential series on Zakaria’s GPS Jul 13, 2008

Strengthen NATO to face 21st-century threats

Barack Obama will restore America’s leadership abroad, reform and enhance international organizations and strengthen our alliances. He will strengthen NATO to face 21st-century threats, forge a new and lasting framework for collective security in Asia, and work with other countries around the world to combat global climate change.
Source: Campaign website, BarackObama.com, “Resource Flyers” Aug 26, 2007

Barack Obama on Mideast

Kissinger agrees with me on meeting with enemy leaders

McCAIN: Throughout history, whether it be Ronald Reagan, who wouldn’t sit down with Brezhnev, Andropov or Chernenko until Gorbachev was ready with glasnost and perestroika, or whether it be Nixon’s trip to China, which was preceded by Henry Kissinger, many times before he went. I’ll sit down with anybody, but there’s got to be pre-conditions.

OBAMA: Senator McCain mentioned Henry Kissinger, who’s one of his advisers, who, along with five recent secretaries of state, just said that we should meet with Iran--guess what--without precondition. This is one of your own advisers.

McCAIN: My friend, Dr. Kissinger, who’s been my friend for 35 years, would be interested to hear this conversation and Senator Obama’s depiction of his -- of his positions on the issue. I’ve known him for 35 years. And I guarantee you he would not -- he would not say that presidential top level.

OBAMA: Nobody’s talking about that.

Source: 2008 first presidential debate, Obama vs. McCain Sep 26, 2008

FactCheck: Kissinger opposes presidential meetings with Iran

McCain attacked Obama for his declaration that he would meet with leaders of Iran and other hostile nations “without preconditions.” To do so with Iran, McCain said, “isn’t just naive; it’s dangerous.” Obama countered by saying former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger--a McCain adviser--agreed with him.

So who’s right? Kissinger did in fact say a few days earlier at a forum of former secretaries of state that he favors very high-level talks with Iran--without conditions. On Sept. 20 Kissinger said, “I actually have preferred doing it at the secretary of state level... I do not believe that we can make conditions for the opening of negotiations.”

After the McCain-Obama debate, however, Kissinger issued a statement saying he doesn’t favor a presidential meeting, saying, “I would not recommend the next President engage in talks with Iran at the Presidential level. My views on this issue are entirely compatible with the views of my friend Senator John McCain.”

Source: FactCheck.org on 2008 first Presidential debate Sep 26, 2008

My record on Israel is same as McCain’s

Q: You’re heading to Israel next?

A: Yes.

Q: According to a recent poll out of Jerusalem, Israeli Jews favor John McCain for President 43% to 20%. Why do you think that’s the case?

A: Well, I’m not as well known as John McCain. I think that’s obviously a factor. And, you know, I think, understandably, Israelis are very interested in making sure that whoever takes the White House is absolutely committed to their security, regardless of other issues. And they know John McCain. He’s been there. Despite the fact that my record is as strong as John McCain’s on all the issues related to Israeli security, people just don’t know me as well. That’s part of the reason why we’re gonna spend a day visiting there in discussions and hopefully give people confidence that I have a track record that will assure not only the people of Israel, but friends of Israel back home, that, in fact, Israel’s security is paramount.

Source: 2008 CBS News presidential interview with Katie Couric Jul 22, 2008

Appropriate for Israel to take out Syrian nuclear reactor

Q: How likely do you think a preemptive military strike by Israel against Iran may be?

A: I will not hypothesize on that. I think Israel has a right to defend itself. But I will not speculate on the difficult judgment that they would have to make in a whole host of possible scenarios.

Q: This is not a speculative question then. Was it appropriate, in your view, for Israel to take out that suspected Syrian nuclear site last year?

A: Yes. I think that there was sufficient evidence that they were developing a site using a nuclear or using a blueprint that was similar to the North Korean model. There was some concern as to what the rationale for that site would be. And, again, ultimately, I think these are decisions that the Israelis have to make. But, you know, the Israelis live in a very tough neighborhood where a lot of folks, publicly proclaim Israel as an enemy and then act on those proclamations.

Source: 2008 CBS News presidential interview with Katie Couric Jul 22, 2008

Jerusalem should be capital of Israel, pending final status

Q: You said not too long ago that Jerusalem should remain undivided. And then you backtracked on that statement.

A: There was no backtracking. We just had phrased it poorly in the speech. But my policy has been very consistent. It’s the same policy tha Bill Clinton has put forward, and that says that Jerusalem will be the capital of Israel, that we shouldn’t divide it by barbed wire, but that, ultimately that a final status issue that has to be resolved between the Palestinians and the Israelis.

Source: 2008 CBS News presidential interview with Katie Couric Jul 22, 2008

Jerusalem as joint Palestinian-Israeli capital is ok

Q: You recently supported Jerusalem as the undivided capital of Israel. Why not support the Clinton plan, which envisions a divided Jerusalem, the Arab half being the capital of a Palestinian state, the Jewish half being the capital of the Jewish state?

A: The truth is that this was an example where we had some poor phrasing in the speech. The point we were simply making was, is that we don’t want barbed wire running through Jerusalem, similar to the way it was prior to the ‘67 war, that it is possible for us to create a Jerusalem that is cohesive and coherent. I think the Clinton formulation provides a starting point for discussions between the parties. The intention was never to move away from that core idea that a Jewish state depends on their ability to create peace with their neighbors, and that the Palestinian leadership has to acknowledge that the battles that they’ve been fighting, and the rhetoric they’ve been employing, has not delivered for their people.

Source: CNN Late Edition: 2008 presidential series on Zakaria’s GPS Jul 13, 2008

Palestinian people suffer-but from not recognizing Israel

Q: You said recently, “No one is suffering more than the Palestinian people.” Do you stand by that remark?

A: Well, keep in mind what the remark actually, if you had the whole thing, said. And what I said is nobody has suffered more than the Palestinian people from the failure of the Palestinian leadership to recognize Israel, to renounce violence, and to get serious about negotiating peace and security for the region. Israel is the linchpin of much of our efforts in the Middle East.

Source: 2007 South Carolina Democratic primary debate, on MSNBC Apr 26, 2007

FactCheck: Palestinian suffering from stalled peace effort

Obama defended his remark that “nobody is suffering more than the Palestinian people,” a statement attacked by some pro-Israel activists. His version differed in tone if not in substance from the way it was originally reported, however. Obama claimed in the debate that he meant “the Palestinian people from the failure of the Palestinian leadership to recognize , to renounce violence, and to get serious about negotiating peace and security for the region.” That’s somewhat different from the way Obama was quoted March 12. As reported, Obama attributed Palestinian suffering to “the stalled peace efforts with Israel” and not so narrowly to failures by Palestinian leadership only. However, the Des Moines Register also reported that Obama praised Israel as an important US ally and urged the Palestinian government to recognize Israel and renounce terrorism. So far as we can tell, the Register had the only reporter present at the event and no full transcript exists.
Source: FactCheck.org on 2007 South Carolina Democratic debate Apr 26, 2007

Supports Israel’s self-defense; but distrusted by Israelis

The Israeli newspaper “Haaretz” convened a panel of experts to assess and track 2008 presidential candidates and evaluate “whom they consider best for Israel.” In Sept. 2006, Obama came in dead last, 18th in a field of 18. However, Haaretz also notes that during the 2006 Israel-Lebanon war, Obama was careful to defend Israel’s right to defend itself against Hezbollah’s attacks.

Pro: Obama will be uniquely positioned to resolve the Israeli-Arab conflict.
A liberal Democrat who is not trusted by Israeli experts is exactly what the US and the world needs. Only by treating Palestinian rights with dignity can the Middle East problem be resolved.

Con: President Obama will be widely detested in the Muslim world.
If Obama comes to power, it will be on the basis of blending authentic Christian religiosity with an inspiring message of tolerance and diversity. Unfortunately, this message runs exactly opposite to the core values of fundamentalist Islam.

Source: Should Barack Obama Be President?, by Fred Zimmerman, p.64-5 Oct 17, 2006

Barack Obama on Resolutions

At college, protested for divestment from South Africa

Obama became involved in a popular campus movement of the day--urging divestment of university money from South Africa because of its policy of apartheid. It was through this activism that Obama first learned the power of words--and his own power with the spoken word. “I noticed that people had begun to listen to my opinions,” he wrote. “It was a discovery that made me hungry for words. Not words to hide behind but words that could carry a message, support an idea.“ His first public-speaking moment occurred when he opened a staged rally in which he was to begin talking to an afternoon crowd only to be yanked from the stage in a physical metaphor for the voiceless black South Africans.
Source: From Promise to Power, by David Mendell, p. 57 Aug 14, 2007

Sponsored aid bill to avert humanitarian crisis in Congo.

Obama sponsored increasing aid to avert humanitarian crisis in Congo


SPONSOR'S INTRODUCTORY REMARKS: Sen. OBAMA: There is a country embroiled in conflict that has not yet received the high-level attention or resources it needs. It's the Democratic Republic of Congo, and right now it is in the midst of a humanitarian catastrophe.

31,000 people are dying in the Congo each month and 3.8 million people have died in the previous 6 years. The country, which is the size of Western Europe, lies at the geographic heart of Africa and borders every major region across the continent. If left untended, Congo's tragedy will continue to infect Africa.

I believe that the United States can make a profound difference in this crisis. According to international aid agencies, there are innumerable cost-effective interventions that could be quickly undertaken--such as the provision of basic medical care, immunization and clean water--that could save thousands of lives. On the political front, sustained U.S. leadership could fill a perilous vacuum.


LEGISLATIVE OUTCOME:Became Public Law No. 109-456

Source: Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act (S.2125) 05-S2125 on Dec 16, 2005

Implement Darfur Peace Agreement with UN peacekeeping force.

Obama co-sponsored implementing Darfur Peace Agreement with UN peacekeeping force

Source: S.RES.455 08-SR455 on Feb 14, 2008

Urge Venezuela to re-open dissident radio & TV stations.

Obama co-sponsored urging Venezuela to re-open dissident radio & TV stations

Source: Radio Caracas Resolution (S.RES.211) 2007-SR211 on May 21, 2007

Let Ukraine & Georgia enter NATO.

Obama co-sponsored including Ukraine & Georgia in NATO

Congressional Summary: A resolution expressing strong support for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to enter into a Membership Action Plan with Georgia and Ukraine:

  1. reaffirming support for enlargement of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to include democratic governments that are able to meet the membership responsibilities;
  2. that NATO's expansion contributes to its relevance;
  3. that Georgia and Ukraine are strong allies that have made important progress in the areas of defense and democratic and human rights reform;
  4. that a stronger relationship among Georgia, Ukraine, and NATO will benefit those countries and NATO member states; and
  5. that the United States should take the lead in supporting the awarding of a Membership Action Plan to Georgia and Ukraine.

Legislative Outome: Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent.

Source: S.RES.439 & H.RES.997 2008-SR439 on Jan 31, 2008

Condemn violence by Chinese government in Tibet.

Obama co-sponsored condemning the violence by Chinese government in Tibet

A resolution condemning the violence in Tibet and calling for restraint by the Government of the People's Republic of China and the people of Tibet. Calls for:

  1. a dialogue between the government of China and His Holiness the Dalai Lama on religious and cultural autonomy for Tibet within China; and
  2. release of peaceful protesters.
    Calls on the PRC to:
  1. respect the right of the people of Tibet to speak of the Dalai Lama and possess his photograph;
  2. respect basic human rights;
  3. allow international journalists free access to China; and
  4. provide a full accounting of the March 2008 protests in Tibet.
Urges that the agreement permitting the PRC to open further diplomatic missions in the United States should be contingent upon establishment of a U.S. government office in Lhasa, Tibet.
Source: S.RES.504 2008-SR504 on Apr 7, 2008

Sanction Mugabe until Zimbabwe transitions to democracy.

Obama co-sponsored sanctioning Mugabe until Zimbabwe transitions to democracy

A resolution expressing the sense of the Senate regarding the political situation in Zimbabwe. Expresses the sense of the Senate:

  1. supporting the people of Zimbabwe;
  2. that the Zimbabwe Electoral Commission should immediately release the legitimate results of the presidential election and ratify the previously announced results of the parliamentary elections;
  3. that President Robert Mugabe should accept the will of the people of Zimbabwe in order to effect a timely and peaceful transition to democratic rule;
  4. that the U.S. government and the international community should impose targeted sanctions against individuals in the government of Zimbabwe and state security services and militias who are responsible for human rights abuses and election interference;
  5. that the U.S. government and the international community should work together to prepare an economic and political recovery package for Zimbabwe;
  6. that regional organizations should play an active role in resolving the crisis; and
  7. that the U.N. Security Council should support efforts to bring about a peaceful resolution of the crisis and impose an international arms embargo on Zimbabwe until a legitimate democratic government has taken power.
Source: S.RES.533&H.RES.1230 2008-SR533 on Apr 24, 2008

Other candidates on Foreign Policy: Barack Obama on other issues:
GOP: Sen.John McCain
GOP V.P.: Gov.Sarah Palin
Democrat: Sen.Barack Obama
Dem.V.P.: Sen.Joe Biden

Third Parties:
Constitution: Chuck Baldwin
Libertarian: Rep.Bob Barr
Constitution: Amb.Alan Keyes
Liberation: Gloria La Riva
Green: Rep.Cynthia McKinney
Socialist: Brian Moore
Independent: Ralph Nader
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Page last updated: Dec 07, 2008